British academy

British Academy Research Readerships, British Academy/Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowships and the Thank-Offering to Britain Fellowship

Results of the 2003 Competition

The British Academy is pleased to announce the results of the 2003 British Academy Research Readerships, British Academy/Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowships and British Academy Thank-Offering To Britain Fellowships


British Academy Research Readerships

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Professor Martin Bell
Professor of Archaeological Science, Department of Archaeology, University of Reading
Coastal Archaeology of Britain and North West Europe

Recent years have seen a tremendous upsurge of interest in coastal zone archaeology and environmental change. In part this is because many sites with exceptional organic preservation have recently been discovered in the coastal zone, in part also because the remit of the heritage agencies has recently been extended to include coastal zone archaeology. Published and unpublished surveys and the writer’s original field research will contribute to the development of databases of coastal archaeology as a foundation for a new thematically based book analysing what is distinctive about past coastal ways of life. A diversity of relationships will be identified linking human agency to constantly changing coastal environments. The resulting book will focus on prehistoric Britain and north-west Europe with additional case studies drawn from other parts of the world. The researcher’s own field projects in western Britain will contribute case studies. As part of the project three detailed site studies will also be brought to final separate publication: these are exceptionally preserved Mesolithic sites and environmental sequences at Goldcliff and Prestatyn in Wales and a Bronze Age settlement of Redwick in the Severn Estuary. The project will lead to a more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between coastal change and human activity, seasonality and sedentism, coastal-inland relationships, perceptual issues and a more precise understanding of temporal and spatial contrast in patterns of coastal exploitation.

Further information is available from:http://www.reading.ac.uk/archaeology/about/staff/m-g-bell.aspx

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Dr John Divers
Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Sheffield
Dispensing with Possible Worlds

Talk of possible worlds figures centrally in discussions of modality and intensionality across a wide range of philosophical disciplines including metaphysics, philosophical logic, philosophy of language and philosophy of science. Some philosophers have been prepared to accept the existence of possible worlds in order to lay claim to the benefits that possible-world talk affords. But whether possible worlds are construed as non-actual concrete entities or as actual abstract entities, a formidable range of philosophical difficulties and challenges is associated with the acceptance of their existence. Thus, in this case as elsewhere, philosophers are attracted by the anti-realistic project of securing the benefits associated with the use of a certain discourse, while avoiding the problematic ontological commitments that is threatens. John Divers’ research during his tenure of the Readership is aimed towards the production of a monograph which will offer the first systematic taxonomy, exposition and evaluation of the options for such an antirealism about possible worlds.

Further information available from: http://www.shef.ac.uk/~phil/staff/divers/

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Professor Saul Dubow
Professor of History, Department of History, University of Sussex
A Commonwealth of Ideas: Colonial Knowledge and National Identity in South Africa, c. 1830-1970

This study of the politics of knowledge addresses the relationship between social and scientific thought, colonial identity, and political power in nineteenth and twentieth century South Africa. It hinges on the tension between colonial knowledge, conceived of as a universal modernising and progressive force, and its realisation in the particular context of a society divided along complex ethnic and racial fault-lines. Through analysis of the development of colonial epistemic cultures, literary and scientific institutions, and expert historical thinking about South Africa and its peoples, Professor Dubow aims to demonstrate the complex ways in which the cultivation of knowledge has served to support claims to nationhood and political ascendancy. The study has two subsidiary objectives. One is to provide a sustained - if oblique - commentary on modern South African historiography, with particular reference to the rise of competing nationalisms. The other is to engage in wider debates about the nature of colonial knowledge systems by reflecting on problems such as the role of intellectual ideas and concepts in constituting ethnic and racial, as well as regional and national identities; the dissemination of ideas between imperial metropole and colonial periphery (or province); the emergence of amateur and professional intellectual communities; and the encounter between imperial and indigenous or local knowledge systems.

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Professor Christopher Duggan
Professor of Modern Italian History, School of Modern Languages, University of Reading
The Construction of Italy, 1796-1945

Building on recent research into issues of nation-building and national identity in Italy, Professor Duggan’s project will explore the mechanisms that the ruling elites sought to deploy in order to turn Italy from a ‘geographical expression’ into a nation that was morally unified. He will examine the ideas of Risorgimento, with their unstable amalgam of liberalism and primordialist nationalism, and hopes of regeneration and mission, and look at how the country’s leaders after 1860 attempted to reconcile this potent legacy with the harsh realities of a land that was deeply fragmented, impoverished and beset with internal enemies - notably the Catholic Church, anarchism and socialism. He will suggest that the attempts to construct an organic national community after 1860 led Italy’s elites rapidly to lose faith in liberalism and to countenance less rational and more extreme tools of ‘national education’. Ideas of myth, sacralised politics, charismatic leadership, violence and war - all of which had featured prominently in the rhetoric of the Risorgimento - were widely explored from the 1870s, and, possibly, had a greater impact on the conduct of Italian politics than has often been admitted. This project aims to throw new light on both the roots and character of Italian fascism.

Further information available from: http://www.rdg.ac.uk/AcaDepts/li/new/staff/duggan.html

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Dr Philip J Ford
Reader in French and Neo-Latin Literature, Clare College, Cambridge
The Reception of Homer in Renaissance France: From Theory into Practice

This project is aimed at analysing and illustrating the impact of the Homeric epics on sixteenth-century French writing, in particular, poetry. It involves in the first place a full assessment of Homeric publication throughout Europe from the first fifteenth-century editions through to the end of the sixteenth century. Secondly, it focuses on an examination of various ways in which the Homeric texts were read and interpreted, assessing how Renaissance humanists reacted to and developed commentaries handed down from the ancient world, Byzantium, and, more recently, Italy, to form their own interpretations of Homer. Finally, there will be an assessment and analysis of the ways in which French Renaissance poets, particularly the poets of the Pléiade, exploited and interpreted Homer in their own poetry, as well as the ways in which their readings spread, for example, to the visual arts.

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Professor Martin Goodman, FBA
Professor of Jewish Studies, Oriental Institute, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford
Jewish and Roman Attitudes in the First-Century Mediterranean World: Comparisons and Contrasts

A systematic comparison of Jewish and Roman attitudes to all aspects of their shared world as part of an enquiry into the causes of the marginalisation of the Jews in the early Roman empire. Subjects to be examined will include attitudes to history and the future; the geography of the world; the nature of man and his physical surroundings; the purpose of life and morality; personal relationships; the nature and purpose of the state; and criteria for social status.

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Professor Stephen Graham
Professor of Urban Technology, School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle
The Software-Sorted Society: Rethinking the ‘Digital Divide’

This project aims to ‘get inside’ the software code that helps to organise contemporary society. It will be the first research in the UK to develop a detailed, cross-cutting analysis of the social and political implications of techniques that use software to sort people’s opportunities. As a way of re-thinking the ‘digital divide’ the project will analyse the ways in which automated software-based services, networks and spaces are automatically privileging some users whilst marginalising others. This will be done through case studies of the software-based management of commercial streets (digital CCTV), computer and communications systems (call centers and the internet), and energy markets (smart and pre-payment meters). The project aims to improve our understanding of the roles of software in structuring and dividing society. It will also help to identify the challenges raised by software-sorting for public policy and regulation.

Further information is available from: http://www.ncl.ac.uk/cut/

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Dr Michael Lobban
Reader in Law, Department of Law, Queen Mary, University of London
The Law of Obligations 1820-1914

This project seeks to provide a new history of the law of obligations in the nineteenth century, tracing three main areas of private law: the law of contract, torts and the law relating to trade and commerce. The latter includes the law of debt and debt collection, insolvency, and bankruptcy, and company law, as well as the law of banking, insurance and maritime trade. The nineteenth century is a particularly important era in the history of private law, and one with a rich quantity of available materials for study, yet it is an era which has in many respects been neglected by legal historians. The foundations of many modern doctrines can be traced to this era - notably in contract and tort law - and many of the doctrinal dilemmas which still engage legal scholars may be traced to particular intellectual or policy choices made at that time. At the same time, an understanding of the nature of private law is vital to our understanding of nineteenth-century English society, and this study will seek to locate the doctrinal and theoretical developments in their social and political contexts. The study, when completed, will form a part of the Victorian volumes of the New Oxford History of the Laws of England.

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Dr Jerzy T Lukowski
Senior Lecturer in Modern History, Department of Modern History, University of Birmingham
Utopianism and Enlightenment: The Political Culture of Eighteenth-Century Poland-Lithuania

The project is to produce a comprehensive history of the political ideas of the Polish Enlightenment. The political constitution which the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth inherited from the seventeenth century retained huge attractions for its beneficiaries, the nobility, permitting them to see themselves as uniquely privileged in their liberties and ability to participate in the processes of government and legislation, not only in relation to their neighbours, but Europe as a whole. Since the ‘nobility’ or szlachta made up perhaps ten per cent of the Commonwealth’s population, and the term ‘szlachta’ embraced individuals of every economic level, from magnates to the destitute, any attempt to reshape the position of these ideological stakeholders was bound to encounter suspicion and difficulties on a large scale. Reformers had to argue against norms which conferred a sense of dignity and moral superiority on nobles, and which were also widely recognised as goods in themselves (Jaucourt’s article ‘Pologne’ in the Encyclopédie uses many aspects of the Polish constitution to criticise the French monarchy). Reform-minded writers had to overcome their own disagreements as to the adoption of a pragmatic or idealistic approach. The Catholicism which underpinned the nobility’s view of themselves was a further obstacle to change, not least because so many reformers were Catholic ecclesiastics. These tensions were never fully resolved, but they provide an example of the difficulties encountered in bringing about reform in a highly politicised society, highly resistant to fiat from above. The ultimate aim of the project is to explore just how far much ideological progress was made in recasting old values and assumptions, not merely through political argument and persuasion, but the attempted re-education of the dominant sector of Polish-Lithuanian society.

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Dr Malcolm D MacLeod
Reader in Social and Applied Cognition, School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews
Repression by Suppression: The Role of Active Forgetting in the Control of Unwanted Memories

Typically, we tend to think of forgetting as inconvenient, occasionally upsetting, and sometimes embarrassing. Current thinking on this topic, however, would suggest that some forms of active forgetting may be important for the efficient updating of memory. The suppression of related but unwanted material at retrieval may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of promoting recall for information we wish to remember. It is also possible that inhibitory mechanisms are involved in people’s attempt to actively forget upsetting events in their lives.

The project will comprise a series of empirical studies designed to assess the extent to which it is possible to inhibit memory of emotive material, whether such suppression is controllable, and the effects of repeated inhibition on recall performance. Could inhibition provide a mechanistic explanation for the phenomenon of repressed memory or might it lead, perversely, to increased accessibility? In addressing such questions, we will be better placed to understand the role of memory in adjustment to trauma and, as a consequence, develop effective strategies to support people following traumatic episodes.

Further information is available from: http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/psychology/people/lect/mdm.shtml

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Professor Sally Shuttleworth
Professor of English Literature, Department of English Literature, University of Sheffield
The Psychology of Childhood in Victorian Literature, Science and Medicine

This project will produce a monograph that charts the complex interplay between the literary and medical domains as nineteenth-century writers sought to explore the psychology of childhood. Focusing on questions of childhood mental development, it will look at changing representations of imagination, violence, nervous disorders and sexuality, and the child’s relations to primitive cultures and animal forms of life. By opening up the neglected fields of early child development studies and psychiatry, and setting both canonical and non-canonical literary works in a new context, it will offer a range of fresh literary readings. It will also offer an historical overview of both child psychology and psychiatry in Britain from the 1830s through to the crucial decade of the 1890s, when histories customarily begin.

The study builds on Professor Shuttleworth’s previous work on nineteenth-century literature and science, in particular Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology (1996) and Embodied Selves: An Anthology of Psychological Texts 1830-1890 (1998), co-edited with Dr Jenny Bourne Taylor, which contains a section on childhood. It also draws on the findings and methodology of the AHRB and Leverhulme Trust funded project ‘Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical’, co-directed with the historian of science Professor Geoffrey Cantor, which explores representations of science across a diverse range of generalist periodicals.

The research opens up a range of difficult questions concerning the inter-relations between disciplinary spheres. Why, for example, did detailed scientific studies of child development lag so far behind literary interest in the child? How far did literary models provide a framework for this emerging scientific field? Conversely, were literary representations of childhood passion or imagination, for example, influenced by the increasingly vehement discourse of child psychiatry? Were there shifting, and indeed competing, models of childhood operating through the period? Did emerging evolutionary theories fundamentally alter cultural conceptions of childhood?

At the heart of the project lies the question of whether a child could be insane. Then, as now, this vexed question raises issues about the age of responsibility, the divisions between adulthood and childhood, the nature of development and inheritance, and the boundaries of normality. The study will move from the early decades of the Victorian period when medical writers vehemently denied that children could suffer mental illness, through to the later decades which witnessed both the birth of evolutionary-based child study, and the pessimistic projections of Maudsleyan psychiatry. In exploring the connections between literary and scientific texts in the 1890s, the book will consider whether ideas of inherited memory acted to overturn the foundational assumptions of earlier definitions of childhood: innocence and lack of experience. If a child is the embodiment of familial and species memories, in what ways can it be said to be still a child?

Further information is available from: http://www.shef.ac.uk/english/literature/staff/ss.html

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Dr John T Sidel
Reader in South East Asian Politics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Liberalism, Communism, Islam: Transnational Motors of ‘Nationalist’ Struggles in Southeast Asia

This project is intended to elaborate and substantiate a broadly revisionist account of the major struggles of modern Southeast Asian history, which have been described in terms of ‘nationalist’ movements pursuing national goals. The research and writing will trace the three most important transnational ideologies, networks, and horizons which captivated the hearts and minds of Southeast Asians in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries - Liberalism, Communism, and Islam - both in the lived experiences and activities of the urban intelligentsias of the region and in those of broader mass publics. Case studies will cover the entirety of Southeast Asia from the heyday of the Liberal Propagandista Movement in the late nineteenth-century Philippines to the rise of Ho Chi Minh’s Indochinese Communist Party in the 1930s and 1940s to the alleged terrorist activities of Jemaah Islamiya in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore at the turn of the twenty-first century. This project entails both a re-examination of the available secondary literature, and an extensive reading of primary sources in Malay/Indonesian, Tagalog, Jawi, and Arabic.

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Professor James Simpson
Professor of Medieval and Renaissance English, English Faculty, University of Cambridge, and Professorial Fellow, Girton College, Cambridge
Reading and Rejection: The English Bible, 1526-1547

Reading and Rejection will be powerfully revisionist. It will invite readers to reflect on the negative obverse of the well-established, and not undeserved, eulogy of the first printed English Bibles. The Bible always provokes readers to divide old from new. In this project I focus on the destructive implications of that division, by tracing the shock waves of the new Bible into the broader culture. I look not only to the more obvious targets of ‘traditional’ religion, but also to the punishing inward pressures, imposed by reading the vernacular Bible, on evangelical readers themselves. The early evangelical English Bible is not and cannot be ‘simple’ in its literal sense; it cannot disassociate itself from institutions; and it threatens institutions no less than readers with rejection.

The textual home base of the project is not the evangelical Bible itself so much as the response it engendered. The enormous, intense and largely uncharted polemical confrontation of Thomas More and various opponents between 1529 and 1533 stands at the centre of the project. These articulate confrontations are exceptionally revealing, as one reading culture confronts another in a struggle for survival. In addition to this large body of material, I consider literary receptions of the Biblical text, such as those of Wyatt and Surrey.

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Professor Harvey Whitehouse
Professor of Anthropology, School of Anthropological Studies, Queen’s University, Belfast
Interdisciplinary Project to Test the Theory of Modes of Religiosity

The theory of ‘modes of religiosity’ maintains that substantial variations in the frequency, emotionality, and consequentiality of ritual performances determines the ways in which memory systems are activated; this in turn affects the nature and organisation of religious ideas and the scale and structure of religious organisations. This project will build on an existing Networks project funded by the British Academy. The Networks project involves three conferences (at Cambridge University, the University of Vermont, and Emory University) focused on a critical evaluation of Whitehouse’s theory of ‘modes of religiosity’ by leading scholars in the following subject areas: anthropology, history of religion/archaeology, and cognitive science. Since its inception, interest in the Networks project has grown rapidly, opening up a series of unique opportunities for substantial further research and publishing. In addition to completing his work for the original Networks project, which will include co-editing three volumes of essays based on conference proceedings, Whitehouse will use the research readership to: assume a leading role in the construction of three very substantial databases; carry out a major programme of new psychological research, write one single-authored volume and write one-third of a multi-authored volume; further disseminate the project’s findings by means of journal articles and lectures; assume primary responsibility for the co-ordination and administration of the enlarged project as a whole.

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Dr Lucia Zedner
Reader in Criminal Justice, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford
Security and Justice: An Enquiry into the Normative Issues Raised by Changes in the Governance of Crime

The challenges posed to criminal justice by changes in the governance of crime, under the broad rubric ‘the pursuit of security’ will form the focus of Dr Zedner’s research. These changes include the rise of risk assessment, prudential strategies, crime prevention, community safety initiatives, and, above all, the rapid growth of the private security industry.

Her research will consider the changes entailed by the pursuit of security and their ethical implications. What is meant by security in different jurisdictions and legal cultures? What differences arise in the organisation, practices, technologies, and goals of security? What are the ethical, political and social issues raised by the pursuit of security, particularly where private and quasi-private agencies are involved? What is on offer when security stands as the justification for public policy or private venture, to whom, and at what cost (not least to trust, privacy rights, and individual freedom)? Is it possible to regulate the pursuit of security so as to ensure fair, accountable, and inclusive provision of protection? Do existing legislsative controls and regulatory mechanisms suffice or are new forms of regulation required and, if so, based upon what principles? And finally, what are the implications of the changes here described for existing penal theory and criminal justice values?

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British Academy/Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowships

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Dr G W Bernard
Reader in History, Department of History, University of Southampton
Vitality and Vulnerability in the Late Medieval Church

Long seen as riddled with abuses and thus an easy and inevitable target of critics, the late medieval English church has recently - and often movingly - been presented as still cherished by an overwhelming majority of laypeople. The difficulty with that approach, however, is that it makes the subsequent Reformation inexplicable. How could so popular a church be overturned, even allowing for the threats and pressures that rulers could impose? The fashionable emphasis on the vitality of the late medieval church, while in many ways convincing, can nonetheless distort. Dr Bernard instead aims to see the late medieval church from a fresh perspective, one that balances an emphasis on its vitality (shown here especially through a study of churchbuilding) with - crucially - an exploration of its vulnerability to criticism. An enriched understanding of the late medieval church, valuable in itself, also has profound implications for our understanding of the religious and political history of Tudor England, and the subsequent very distinctive and persisting character of the church of England.

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Dr Paul Binski
Reader in the History of Medieval Art, Department of the History of Art, University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
A Cultural History of English Gothic Art and Architecture (1170-1350)

The aim of this project is to establish a new account of the development of English art and architecture between the martyrdom of Thomas Becket at Canterbury in 1170, and the early 14th century, using a wide variety of sources and a multi-media approach. This account will try to integrate medieval visual culture into a framework of religious, social and political debate. No general book on this field has appeared since the 1950s; this study is not intended merely to fill a gap, but to indicate ways in which the field more generally might be developed. The study takes four main themes: edification (the development of ideas about architectural allegory and the purpose of architecture); sanctification (in effect the canonization not merely of special classes of people, notably churchmen, but also ideas and values specific certain communities); regulation (the control by the Church and public power of the production, content and consumption of art) and finally expression (the extent to which 'Gothic' art embodies new principles of affect and conduct). The hypothesis to be tested is that what we call Gothic art represents in part an attempt by the Church to harness new technologies of building and communication in the service of its reformist and pastoral objectives, and to harmonize religion and ethics in a total view of the Christian habitus. Inevitably, a price also had to be paid by this widespread accommodation to social and cultural realities, and how this was managed by the Church forms an important and continuous thread of argumentation.

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Professor E J Lowe
Professor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham
The Four-Category Ontology: A metaphysical foundation for natural science

The award will assist Professor Lowe to complete this book, in which he will expound, defend and apply a system of ontology which recognises four fundamental categories of entities: substantial particulars, non-substantial particulars, substantial universals, and non-substantial universals. Non-substantial universals include properties and relations, conceived as universals. Non-substantial particulars include property- and relation-instances, otherwise known as non-relational and relational tropes. Substantial particulars include propertied individuals, the paradigm examples of which are persisting, concrete objects. Substantial universals are otherwise known as substantial kinds and include as paradigm examples natural kinds of persisting objects. The explanatory power of this system will be demonstrated through its many applications in analytical metaphysics and the philosophy of science - for example, in the analysis of causation, in the theory of dispositions, and in the characterisation of natural necessity and natural law.

The four-category ontology has a lengthy pedigree, many commentators attributing it to Aristotle on the basis of certain passages in the Categories. At various times during the history of western philosophy, it has been revived or rediscovered, but it has never found universal favour, perhaps on account of its apparent lack of parsimony. In pursuit of ontological economy, metaphysicians have generally preferred to recognise fewer than four fundamental ontological categories. However, Occam’s razor stipulates only that we should not multiply entities beyond necessity, and it will be argued in the course of the book that the four-category ontology has an explanatory power which in unrivalled by more parsimonious systems and that this counts decisively in its favour.

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Dr Helen J Nicholson
Senior Lecturer in History, School of History and Archaeology, Cardiff University
The Trial of the Templars in the British Isles

The aim of this project is to re-edit in full, translate and analyse the proceedings of the trial of the Templars in the British Isles, 1307 to 1312; and to identify, edit, translate and analyse other surviving documents relating to the trial in the British Isles. These documents together contain a wealth of information about national and international mobility of lay religious, religious beliefs among the lay population of the British Isles and the operation and economic state of the estates of an international religious order in the British Isles in the early fourteenth century. While this material is already known to historians, it is not easily accessible. Editions of texts are widely scattered, and many do not comply with modern scholarly conventions. Previous scholarly studies have concentrated on limited aspects of the material, and much work has been done by local historians who lacked knowledge of the wider European context necessary for full analysis. This project will make these extensive resources readily available to scholars and, by providing a translation, more accessible to the wider research community. In addition, by comparing these sources and analysing the data that they contain in the light of the international political and religious context of the trial, the project will advance historical knowledge of the trial and of its related fields.

Further information is available from: http://www.cf.ac.uk/hisar/people/hn/

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Dr Joan-Pau Rubiés
Lecturer in International History, London School of Economics, University of London
Citizens of the World: Travel Writing and the Origins of the Enlightenment, 1550-1750

A concern with human diversity built on images of various customs, religions and political systems has long been recognised as an integral part of the culture of the Enlightenment and its cosmopolitan ideals, but why this became so is less clear. In particular, the origins of the concern in the travel writing and historiography of the late Renaissance have not been properly analysed. In part, this has been a consequence of the superficiality and lack of systematicity with which the primary narratives of cultural encounter of this period have often been read, and in part also a result of a certain lack of attention to the ways in which those sources made an impact in the intellectual culture of the seventeenth century. What I shall seek to do here is to bring a novel understanding of the Renaissance roots of European ethnology to bear on the question of the origin of some of the key concerns of the Enlightenment.

The book will first discuss how attitudes towards travel and travel writing gained a central role in the education horizons of the Renaissance; it will then consider the close interaction of humanistic culture and the observation of non-European societies in the generation of a new kind of ethnography; a third group of chapters will analyse the contribution of this ethnography to a number of historical-anthropological debates, touching on definitions of human nature, political and cultural diversity, the history of religion, and the history of civilisation.

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Professor Nicholas D B Saul
Professor of German, Humanities Graduate Centre (Arts), University of Liverpool
Gypsies and Orientalism in German Literature from Realism to Modernism

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Professor Vera Tolz
Professor of Contemporary History, School of English, Sociology, Politics and Contemporary History, Salford University
Oriental Studies and Russian National Identity

The first systematic study of Russian Orientalism, the project will examine the applicability to Russia of Edward Said’s conclusions on the role of Oriental studies in shaping European identity. The project will examine the views of key Russian Oriental scholars on the impact of the empire’s eastern borderlands on Russian national identity. It will focus on the period between the 1870s and the 1920s which saw the growth of Oriental studies in Russian academia, vigorous government initiatives to facilitate integration within the empire and passionate intellectual debates on Russian nation-building. Four areas of Russian scholarship will be analysed - on the Caucasus, Central Asian, eastern Siberia, and the Turkic peoples of the middle Volga region. The main output of the Fellowship will be a book, consisting of two parts. The first will focus on the participation of Oriental scholars in the contemporary intellectual debates over Russian identity and the second will assess their contribution to government policies towards the empire’s ethnic minorities.

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Thank-Offering to Britain Fellowship

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Dr Theadora Kostakopoulou
Senior Lecturer in Law, Manchester School of Law, University of Manchester
The Future Governance of Citizenship

Attention to citizenship has received a new impetus and reached an unprecedented scale in the last decade. Forces and developments above and below the state have called into question the traditional nation-state centred model of citizenship. This had led scholars to embark upon the search of new forms of citizenship, which would replace the old model of singular membership in the national community (Held 1996; Soysal 1994).

Three alternative conceptions of citizenship have been suggested by the literature: postnational citizenship, transnational citizenship and multicultural citizenship. Advocates of postnational citizenship argue that the nationality model of citizenship has been superseded by a new type of membership based on deterritorialised notions of persons’ rights. The codification and elaboration of human rights principles have led to the dilution of the ‘natural dichotomy’ between citizens and aliens (Soysal, 1994), thereby leading to the decline of national citizenship (Jacobson, 1996). Transnational citizenship refers to the fact that international migration and the ensuing interactions between receiving and sending countries result in the creation of mobile societies beyond the borders of territorial states without dissolving these borders (Baubock, 1994). Multicultural citizenship, on the other hand, entails the aspiration that sociopolitical institutions and structures become more attentive to, and reflective of, the claims made by minority constituencies for inclusion and cultural recognition (Parekh, 2000).

Although these conceptions of citizenship are insightful and important, they, nevertheless, fail to put forward a model of citizenship that is not wedded to the nation-state. Postnational citizenship does not challenge the primacy of the state; the state is the body that is rightfully and legitimately charged with upholding human rights both domestically and internationally. States also define the scope and nature of the rights granted to resident aliens and the international human rights guarantees. In this respect, one should not overstate the role of human rights principles in improving the incorporation of migrants and underestimate trends towards exclusionary nationalism and nativist reactions. Transnational citizenship denies neither the existence nor the relevance of borders and nation-states; it simply recognises the increasing possibility of membership in two states and multiple identities. Multicultural citizenship, on the other hand, aims at pluralising the nation and making ethnic migrant communities an integral part of a changing nation rather than going beyond it (Parekh, 2000). In sum, in all three accounts citizenship remains a national-statist affair, and no one has elaborated a systematic institutional framework of post-national citizenship.

This deficit has been pinpointed by Kenneth Karst (2000, pp. 599-600) who has recently argued that ‘if the proponents of postnational citizenship are to persuade U.S. citizens to go along with their project, they will have to offer an institutional framework that serves to protect the substantive values of citizenship.... In short, what the proponents of postnational citizenship need to offer is law’.

Believing that its enormous implications for justice and community make it more compelling than ever to engage with the search of an alternative model of citizenship, the proposed project will examine the future prospects of the existing nationality model of citizenship and will develop an alternative, de-nationalised model.

The proposed research will blend normative political theory with critical legal studies. It will build on and further extend into new directions reflective research that Dr Kostakopoulou has conducted in the areas of citizenship, membership and community.

Further information is available from: http://les.man.ac.uk/law/staff/dora_kosta.htm