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Mid-Career Fellowship Competition Awards 2012

The British Academy was able to confirm 47 awards in this round of the Mid-Career Fellowship competition to be taken up from autumn 2012.

Armstrong, Dr Chris
Reader in Politics                                                                                                                                             Division of Politics and International Relations, University of Southampton
Politics / Political Theory 
Global Justice and Natural Resources
£96,280

This project will develop a normative account of how we ought to distribute rights over natural resources. Natural resources are hugely important to economic development and the fulfilment of basic human needs. Moreover if we take the interests of future generations seriously then there is an imperative to use natural resources efficiently. Nevertheless, the world exhibits a system of almost exclusive national control over resources (called 'permanent sovereignty' within international law) which serves both justice and conservation poorly. Whilst some critics have deplored the consequences for global justice, they have tended to suggest an alternative model - equal entitlements over resources - which itself performs at best moderately well in responding to overlapping justice claims. The project shall explore more fully an alternative model of resource rights under which rights would be dispersed both upwards and downwards from the nationstate; it will also sketch some of the 'applied' implications for resource access, use, governance and conservation.

Arseneault, Dr Louise
Reader in Development Psychology                                                                                                                   Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London 
Psychology / Developmental and Educational Psychology 
The adult consequences of being bullied in childhood: A 45-year prospective epidemiological study
£133,294

Studies have shown that being bullied by peers is harmful for children's well-being. However, we do not know whether the future of our children can be compromised by bullying, similarly to other forms of early victimisation. Given that 25% of children in the UK report having been bullied at some point, it is urgent that we examine the extent to which this experience can leave its marks on future generations. The purpose of this research proposal is to investigate, for the first time in a prospective representative cohort spanning from childhood to adulthood, the long-term consequences of being bullied in childhood. Data from one of the British birth cohort studies will be used to examine adult outcomes such as mental health problems, substance misuse, physical health problems and diseases amongst bullied children. Findings from this project will generate scientific papers to inform researchers and mental health practitioners. Results from this project will also be of interest to the general public given the attention given by the media to this important social issue of bullying.

Batt, Dr Catherine
Senior Lecturer in Archaeological Sciences                                                                                                         
Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences, University of Bradford
Archaeology / Archaeological Science & Environmental Archaeology 
Traders, looters or settlers? Constructing a chronology for the westward Viking expansion.
£83,150

Evidence for migration from Scandinavia in the Viking period is found on archaeological sites across the North Atlantic from Shetland to North America. Historical documents have traditionally been used to indicate the timing and sequence of this migration as being east to west between 793AD and 1000AD. However, modern quantitative scientific dating evidence from archaeological excavations increasingly suggests a more complex pattern over an extended period of time. This research critically evaluates and reinterprets scientific and archaeological dating evidence to examine the timing, duration, nature and causes of the migration and provide an insight into the impact of these diaspora on indigenous people. Interaction with academic and general audiences occurs throughout the project, with an innovative focus on the contribution that archaeological evidence can make to teaching 'Movement and settlement' within Primary schools, progressing beyond the popular image of Viking raiders and using evidence from the past to promote discussion of migration and settlement in modern societies.

Buettner, Dr Elizabeth
Senior Lecturer in History                                                                                                                     
Department of History, University of York
History / Modern History 
Europe After Empire: Decolonization, Society, and Culture
£99,334

This project compares British, French, Belgian, Dutch, and Portuguese domestic histories of coming to terms with the end of empire after 1945 with a special emphasis on cultural and social adjustments. Migrations (of ex-colonizers returning home and formerly colonized peoples moving to Europe), the re-imagining of national identities in multicultural societies, and the ways overseas empires have been remembered and forgotten within Britain and western Europe count among its core themes. To make key topics such as immigration, ethnic diversity, multiculturalism, and imperial legacies better understood by academics and a wider British public - which remains ill-informed despite continual national and international debates – Dr Buettner proposes to publish the first comparative academic book to draw these themes together yet remain accessible to students and general readers; run workshops bringing together scholars, journalists, policymakers, museum coordinators, and teachers that result in an international network; record radio programmes; and write concise overview articles aimed at wider audiences.

Carel, Dr Havi Hannah
Senior Lecturer in Philosophy                                                                                                                             
Department of Arts, University of the West of England, Bristol
Philosophy / 19th and 20th century European philosophy including phenomenology, existentialism, critical theory, hermeneutics and deconstruction 
The lived experience of illness: developing a phenomenology of Illness
£73,064

The experience of illness is a universal and substantial part of human life. However, this experience has so far received little philosophical attention (outside bioethics). In order to understand illness fully it has to be studied not merely as an object of science but as a lived experience. Dr Carel proposes to write a monograph, the first of its kind, which puts forward a complete phenomenology of illness and she will study the general characteristics of the experience of illness as it is lived by the ill person. Dr Carel also proposes to develop a comprehensive philosophical account of illness, exploring both somatic and mental disorders and explicating the importance of illness to philosophy. Communication plans include a scholarly monograph, two reports, and dissemination to a variety of audiences: health professionals, patient groups, NHS stakeholders, philosophers of medicine, and the general public. Dr Carel plans to use a variety of media, including an interactive website, radio (esp. BBC Radio 3), free public events, and workshops for patients and health professionals.

Cooper, Dr Rachel
Senior Lecturer in Philosophy                                                                                                                             
Politics, Philosophy and Religious Studies, Lancaster University
Philosophy / Philosophy of science 
Evaluating the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
£90,794

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the classification of mental disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association. The classification system is influential worldwide, and has become central to mental health care and research. In Classifying Madness (Springer, 2005) Dr Cooper examined the conceptual underpinnings of the DSM-IV and asked: Does the aim of constructing a classification of mental disorders that reflects natural distinctions make sense? To what extent does classification depend on theory? How should we understand a scientific classification system that is shaped by social and financial factors? The DSM-V (due to be published in 2013) will raise fresh issues, which Dr Cooper proposes to address in journal papers and an associated book. The DSM-V is designed for worldwide use, it is constructed by committee, much of the classification will be dimensional as opposed to categorical, and revisions are supposed to be morally progressive.Dr Cooper will examine whether these aims can be achieved and how we should understand the new classification system. 

de Jong
, Dr Ferdinand
Senior Lecturer in Anthropology                                                                                                                         
School of World Art Studies and Museology, University of East Anglia
Anthropology / Material Culture Studies and Museum Ethnography 
The Pan-African Heritage of Senegal
£48,905

This research project pertains to the pan-African heritage of Senegal. As one of the Utopian ideologies of the twentieth century, Pan-Africanism still requires a full analysis in terms of its impact on the current outlook of postcolonial citizens. How do contemporary citizens engage with the Pan-African legacy at this moment in history in which the postcolony is said to be in serious crisis? This project investigates the Pan-African heritage of Senegal and focuses on an often neglected aspect in postcolonial studies: the materiality (rather than textuality) through which the postcolony is imagined. The project has already resulted in the publication of various articles, but requires another three months of work towards the publication of a monograph. The project involves collaboration with the photographers Judith Quax and Mamadou Gomis whose work has already been published and exhibited in other contexts. This project should result in a web-exhibition and a series of museum exhibitions which address the legacy of Pan-Africanism and its failures to address the present crisis.

Ehrensperger, Dr Kathy
Reader in New Testament Studies                                                                                                                      
University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Lampeter
Religious Studies / New Testament 
Paul at the Crossroads of Cultures - Theologizing in the Space-Between
£98,258

The project focuses on the interplay between cultural translation, power dynamics and identity formation in first century intercultural interaction investigating how this contributed to the emergence of the Christ-movement. Paul has been seen as the transmitter of the gospel into the 'Hellenistic' world, as the proponent of a universalistic Christianity, but the underlying paradigms of this perception have not yet been critically evaluated.Dr Ehrensperger will revisit this issue reading the Pauline letters through the paradigm of multi-culturalism/-lingualism rather than through a paradigm of blending such as in Hellenism. In the cultural context of the Eastern Mediterranean, Paul, the Jewish Apostle to the gentiles is seen as theologizing through a complex cultural translation process whereby the message embedded in a Jewish symbolic universe is communicated to, and translated into, the lives of gentile Christ-followers. A new paradigm of ongoing cultural diversity as a key characteristic of Christianity has significant social and theological implications for contemporary inter-cultural discourses.

Gane, Dr Nicholas
Reader in Sociology                                                                                                                                          
Department of Sociology, University of York
Sociology / Political Sociology 
Neoliberalism: A Missing History
£102,375

There is currently widespread academic and public interest in the politics and economics of neoliberalism, but the sociological roots of neoliberal thought are little known. Existing accounts tend to focus on methodological disputes that framed the emergence of Austrian economics through the 1880s, or on the development of neoliberalism post-1945 through Freiburg School economics and think-tanks such as the Mont Pelerin Society. The proposed research will contribute to an historical understanding of neoliberalism by examining the influence of classical sociology upon its emergence at the outset of the 20th Century. It will focus first, on the readings of Max Weber that underpin the epistemological positions of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek; and second, on the latter's dismissal of the positivism of Auguste Comte on the grounds that its 'abuse' of reason opened a path to Stalinism and Nazism. The aim of this project is to explore the ways in which neoliberal thought was framed at its outset by a methodological and political engagement with classical sociological theory.

Garry, Dr John
Senior Lecturer in Comparative Political Science                                                                                                 School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy, Queen's University Belfast
Politics / Electoral Studies 
Consociationalism and Voting
£92,968

It is a critical time to study Northern Ireland electoral politics because the citizens of Northern Ireland have just lived through their first full term (2007-2011) of power-sharing 'consociational' government made up of all the main parties from each community. According to its proponents, 'consociational' government encourages peace and stability because it provides a way of giving power to groups who might otherwise continue with a violent campaign. Critics say because such a system guarantees power to each of the rival communities, it reinforces the underlying tribal division 
and discourages the development of 'normal' politics. Critics also argue that consociationalism is undemocratic because of the lack of an Opposition. Focusing on citizens' voting behaviour in Northern Ireland, this project will systematically empirically test the validity of the claims of proponents and critics of consociationalism in deeply divided societies. Used as data are the five Election Studies (representative surveys of citizens) conducted by Dr Garry during the period of consociational rule.

Giacomini, Dr Raffaella
Reader of Economics                                                                                                                                        
Department of Economics, UCL, University College London
Economics / Econometrics 
Methods for incorporating economic theory into forecasting and policy-making
£111,011

This research will bridge the gap between two conflicting approaches in empirical macroeconomics, with 'atheoretical' econometric models on one side and 'theoretical' models such as dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models on the opposite side. The four projects in this proposal share the argument that the existing methods for estimation of DSGE models are inadequate for bringing realistic models to the data, which raises doubts about the credibility of the estimated DSGE models on which many central banks around the world now base their policy decisions. The research will suggest new econometric methods for incorporating the theoretical restrictions embedded in a DSGE model into forecasting and policy-making which belong to the class of "projection methods" and are new to the literature. These research methods are less sensitive to the criticisms moved to the existing approaches. Preliminary evidence suggests that use of Dr Giacomini's techniques can result in improved forecasting performance, more rigorous policy evaluations and can be used to bring more realistic DSGE models to the data than currently possible.

Gizelis, Dr Theodora-Ismene
Reader                                                                                                                                                             
Department of Government, University of Essex
Politics / Peace Studies 
A Country of their Own: Women Organisations and Peacebuilding Operations
£78,787

Dr Gizelis will complete a book and publications aimed at practitioners and a general audience. The book examines the involvement of women's organisations in post-conflict reconstruction in UN-led peacebuilding operations. The empirical analysis is based on mixed methods, combining statistical analyses of country-level (macro) data on UN missions, district-level (meso) data from Sierra Leone and Liberia, and semi-structured interviews with individuals (micro) in 4 counties in Liberia. The book analyses how including women's organisations influences peacebuilding processes;Dr Gizelis will compare regions with differing degrees of female social activism and UN deployment to highlight how greater local cooperation can enhance UN peacebuilding missions. The workshop aims to bring together practitioners, including the Colchester Garrison, mediation groups, and academics to enhance public understanding of contemporary peacebuilding missions.

Glover-Thomas, Professor Nicola                                                                               
Professor of Medical Law
School of Law, University of Manchester                                     
Law / Medical Law 
Law and Mental Health: Risk, Decision-Making and Regulation
£107,129
Completion of a significant empirical research project, funded by Mersey Care NHS Trust (£60,000), is the aim of this application: to ensure the findings are disseminated broadly, and research outputs produced. The outputs include: a monograph; two book chapters; two academic articles. The dissemination plans include: an explorative comparison of the experience in England and Wales with colleagues in Scotland and to hold a symposium for both academics and non-academic organisations involved in addressing risk within decision making. The completed empirical study provides a timely insight into the translation of legal and policy changes into practice; this translational research is important given the extent of mental ill health in England and Wales.

Griffiths, Dr Paula
Reader in Biosocial Science                                                                                                                               
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University
Sociology / Demography, Epidemiology and Health 
Socio-economic trajectories and their association with socio-demographic variables and child growth in urban South African households
£106,894

This fellowship will use data from urban South African households belonging to the 1990 born Birth-to-Twenty (Bt20) cohort (a cohort studies the same people over time). Griffiths has collaborated with Bt20 for 8 years examining social inequalities and the proposed research builds on this work to take a long term view of a household's relative social and economic status (SES) starting from birth. It will study changes in SES in childhood, early and late adolescence and relate these to health, social and demographic factors. This work will be relevant to social/health policy makers in South Africa & the UK (eg DfID) as well as academics working with SES measures in low/middle income countries. Results will be disseminated by academic papers, a conference presentation, research briefs to stakeholders/media, a participant workshop, an application to participate in the ESRC Social Science Fair, and seminars to the Bt20 team. Other outputs will include Dr Griffiths gaining training in advanced statistical methods & a new Bt20 longitudinal SES database for future analyses of inequality.

Guilfoyle, Dr Douglas
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
Faculty of Laws, University College London
Law / International Law (Public) 
Governing the Oceans: The Law of the Sea and Contemporary Challenges
£105,086

Maritime security is a growing concern for scholars and policy makers. The field encompasses questions of maritime violence/piracy, overfishing, resource disputes, irregular migration and terrorism. To date relevant international law scholarship has tended to diagnose deficiencies in the legal framework, before noting the negligible prospects for major legal reform. Another concern frequently highlighted is the diversity of international institutions with mandates related to maritime security and the lack of coordination between them (the 'governance' problem). The approach will suggest that the key problem is not the law, but the weak ability of many States to exert their jurisdiction and the nature of new threats from non-State actors (especially transnational organised crime). It will also argue that the fragmented regime of governance institutions may actually facilitate adaptive responses to novel challenges. The challenges involved in governing world ocean space will thus be considered through ideas of sovereign deficiencies, asymmetrical actors and governance fragmentation.

Gunaratnam, Dr Yasmin
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
Sociology Department, Goldsmiths, University of London
Sociology / Medical Sociology/Sociology of Health and Illness 
Case Stories: Social Pain and Transnational Dying
£93,388
With a focus upon the experiences of disadvantaged dying migrants in the UK, this project seeks to improve understanding of the painful consequences of social inequality and injustice. It will: i. generate descriptions of pain where social inequalities are implicated using archival research on the palliative care concept of total pain, the applicant's narrative interviews with dying migrants and care practitioners, and stakeholder consultation; and ii. produce fictionalized case stories of pain that will serve as a means of engagement, influence and dissemination. The case stories will be used as teaching materials for care practitioners and social scientists using narrative medicine approaches which use literary texts and theory to cultivate skills in empathy and imaginative understanding. Outputs will also be communicated through a website, a chapter in an edited collection, and an article in a peer reviewed journal. Initiatives to enhance communication with beneficiaries have been built into an infrastructure of engagement in the project to maximise impact.

Haslett, Dr Moyra
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
School of English, Queen's University Belfast 
English Language and Literature / Gender studies - English Language and Literature 
'Imagining Female Community: literary representations of female societies, 1660-
£92,968

This project is to complete a monograph on representations of female communities between 1660 and 1850. During this period, Britain witnessed the first significant flourishing of an associational culture, as clubs, reading societies, coffee houses and guilds proliferated in both metropolitan and provincial centres. The vast majority of these associations were exclusively male, and historical examples of all-female groups remain relatively rare. However, against this context, a remarkable number of texts circulated images of specifically female communities, and raised the question of female exclusion from club society. The complex relationship between literature, with all its imaginative possibilities and aspirations, and history, as the record of the probable limitations of the past, is therefore at the heart of this study. In addition to the monograph and a series of research papers to academic audiences, Dr Haslett will also disseminate the research through public lectures and workshops within Northern Ireland, including girls schools and women's centres and groups.

Hilson, Professor Gavin
Professor of Sustainability in Business                                                                                                              
Surrey Business School, University of Surrey 
Geography / Area Studies 
Carbon Reduction and Forest-Based Livelihoods: A Critical Overview of the REDD-Mining Debate in Guyana
£98,326

There is growing optimism over the ability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) to curb greenhouse gas emissions and deliver badly-needed finances to developing world governments. Its potential impact on forest-based activities, however, could be catastrophic. Focusing on the case of Guyana, a trailblazer of REDD+, this research seeks to explore how and why. Guyana's commitment to REDD+ and the uncertainty surrounding its impact on the well-being of forest-based small-scale gold mining -  the country's most important economic activity - raises important questions for investigation. The research will critically examine Guyana's REDD+-mining debate, underscoring the level of detail needed before decisions which potentially impact vulnerable forest-dependent communities and economic activities can be made . Donors, policymakers and NGOs will be engaged throughout, and equipped with research findings generated using a conceptually simple yet innovative research methodology capable of being replicated in other REDD+ destinations.

Hudson, Dr David
Senior Lecturer in Political Economy                                                                                                                  
Department of Political Science, University College London
Politics / Development Studies - Politics 
Public Engagement with Global Poverty: Explaining Support for Development
£104,248

To what extent do UK citizens support action on global poverty and why? To what extent are attitudes driven by 
individuals' knowledge and values? To what extent are these personal attitudes shaped by how global poverty is framed in the media and public sphere? These are questions of pressing policy and academic relevance. The commitment of successive governments to reach the aid target of 0.7%/GDP, the ring-fencing of aid spending in the context of budget cuts, and now the current vacillation by the Coalition over passing this commitment into law mean it's vitally important to understand the true nature of public support for development. Unfortunately existing knowledge is very poor, despite well-documented survey data. Bad policies are costly, both financially and electorally, and it has been suggested they can actually undermine public support further. Dr Hudson will carry out original and high-impact research, using quantitative techniques on (1) survey data, (2) newspaper reporting, and (3) via experiments, to provide answers to the questions posed above.

Janmaat, Dr Jan Germen
Reader in Comparative Social Science                                                                                                               
Department of Lifelong and Comparative, Institute of Education
Education / Social Exclusion/Inclusion and Equity Issues 
The value-added effect of education on civic attitudes
£50,690

The current project uses the data of two longitudinal studies in England, the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS) and the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), to assess the net effect of schooling on civic attitudes and feelings of exclusion. Civic attitudes to be examined include tolerance, participation, trust and civic equality. Feelings of exclusion concern perceptions of discrimination, unfair treatment and abandonment. A number of school- and classroom-related effects will be explored including social and ethnic composition, the nature of citizenship education, school ethos, status (faith/non-faith; public/private) and location (rural, small town, metropolitan). The project will draw on the literature on political socialization, cross-cultural contact, and social deprivation to generate hypotheses amenable to testing. The effects of schooling will be analysed using multilevel models which will include previous measurements of the outcomes of interest and a range of individual background conditions as control variables.

Jeffrey, Dr Craig
University Lecturer and Fellow of St John's College                                                                                            
St. John's College, University of Oxford
Geography / Developmental Geography 
Loot: Corruption in Modern India
£91,330

The recent anti-corruption campaign by social activist, "Anna" Hazare, has propelled Indian corruption into the public eye, nationally and internationally. Hazare's protests are further politicizing the issue of corruption and contributing to intense national and international debates on the nature of malpractice in India. But there have been few long-term studies of how corruption is performed, resisted and understood in contemporary India. Dr Jeffrey will use his BA Mid-Career Fellowship to address this gap in scholarly and popular understanding and will draw upon prior field research to analyse how ordinary Indians have been drawn into corruption, how they imagine their practices, and how corruption is contested on the ground.He will write a book on this theme intended for both an academic and popular audience and will also communicate the findings to a wide public, via the web, radio, a government report, and workshop. He will also use corruption as a lens through which to think about broader issues in India, such as caste, youth, and economic liberalization.

Kinsella, Dr Sharon
Lecturer in Japanese Visual Culture                                                                                                                    
School of Languages Linguistics and Cultures, University of Manchester
Sociology / Cultural Sociology 
Cultural tastes, cultural capital, and social consciousness amongst the emergent 'bachelor classes' in Japan and Britain
£79,940

This twelve-month project will explore new formations in culture, behavior and consciousness in the expanding cohort of individuals living with parents or alone and aged 22 to 44 years old in the UK and Japan. This comparative study aims to
probe the existence of an emergent transnational 'bachelor class' and to explore its activities and self-reflexivity. If social and cultural capital is unstable and discontinuous amongst 'adult youth' what type of socio-cultural spaces are becoming recognizable amongst the bachelor cohort, and what are the deeper implications? The methodology will be participant observation, respondent diaries, filmed and recorded dialogues, and cultural analysis of tastes and belongings.

Kushner, Dr Barak
Senior Lecturer in Japanese History                                                                                                                    
Faculty of Asian and Middle East Studies, University of Cambridge
History / Modern History 
'Men to Devils and Devils to Men': Japanese War Crimes and Cold War Sino- Japan Relations (1945-1965)
£99,853

The programme is an historical analysis of how the Chinese adjudicated Japanese war crimes. Using recently opened Chinese and Japanese government, diplomatic, and military archives, along with personal diaries, the research will aim to trace the juridical process of the several thousand individuals who were tried as Japanese war criminals in ten venues throughout China. Examination of the immediate postwar addresses three interrelated issues. First, Dr Kushner will chart how Japanese rule was restructured in the Chinese occupied areas and former colonies. Second, the research will detail the Chinese pursuit and prosecution of Japanese war crimes in China. Third, the project will demonstrate how competition between the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) and Chinese Communist Party (CCP), themselves embroiled in a civil war, sought to implement justice under the new banner of international law at the dawn of the Cold War. Dr Kushner will follow the story to the edge of the Japanese empire from 1945-1965, where the transformation of postwar identity and colonial politics links these three themes.

Lake, Dr A Cynfael
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
Adran y Gymraeg/Department of Welsh, Swansea University
Modern Languages / Celtic languages and literatures 
A critical edition of the poems of Hywel Dafi (Hywel ap Dafydd ab Ieuan ap Rhys)
£89,216

The Welsh poets of the period c. 1330-1600 are termed Poets of the Nobility (they composed eulogies and elegies to members of the gentry class) but are also known as 'Cywyddwyr' (they employed primarily a metrical form known in Welsh as 'cywydd'). Commentators have described this period as possibly the most distinguished in the history of Welsh literature on account of the quality of the verse produced and the sheer volume of poetic activity. The works of the leading poets of the period have been edited and have appeared in print; 36 volumes have appeared since 1994 as part of 'The Poets of the Nobility Project' undertaken by the University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies.The one outstanding poet whose work remains to be edited is Hywel Dafi who lived in the Brecon area in mid Wales and who was active in the middle decades of the 15th century. About 150 pieces are attributed to him in manuscript sources, making him one of the three most productive poets of his time. The goal will be to prepare a critical edition of his work.

Lang, Dr Andrew
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
Law Department, London School of Economics and Political Science 
Law / International Law (Public) 
International law and the constitution of transnational markets
£119,154

Public debate often proceeds as if the only economic choice available to us is between 'more market freedom' or 'more regulation'. In fact, there are many kinds of markets. Differently instituted markets have different logics and different implications for issues such as stability, equality or sustainability. One important institution which shapes markets is law: law constitutes markets before regulating them, and different laws produce different kinds of markets. Our inadequate understanding of law's constitutive role in the economy is a significant flaw in contemporary economic thinking. This
project responds to this flaw by examining the way international economic law helps to constitute transnational markets. What role does this law play in shaping the 'rationalities' of market participants? How in turn do these rationalities relate to existing global economic instabilities, imbalances and inequalities? How might it be otherwise? Answering these questions requires us to return to traditions of economic thinking which have largely been marginalised since the early 20th century.

Lazarus, Dr Liora
Lecturer in Law and College Fellow 
St Anne's College, University of Oxford
Law / Public Law 
Juridifying Security
£112,457

The attainment of security, and the minimisation of the threat of insecurity, is an antique problem of social and political order. But in the early years of this century it surfaces with renewed force, in ways that are conditioned by a changing landscape of threats. This project seeks to explore the complex and contradictory conditions in which law and security interact. It examines how the notion of security is defined and expressed in law, how security shapes and is shaped by law, and the implications of the fact that the pursuit of security so often sits at odds with legality and the rule of law. Moreover, it exposes how law can act both as a legitimation and as a prohibition on the pursuit of security, while simultaneously being both legitimated and undermined by this pursuit. The research explores the complex relationship between law and security from four different perspectives: law as security; law as mediator between security and other social goods; law as a demand for security; and securitized law.

Ma, Dr John
Lecturer                                                                                                                                                           
Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford
Classics and Ancient History / History of Greece and the Greek World 
Polis: the Greek city-state 800 BC- AD 600
£111,612

The research plan is to write half of a scholarly yet accessible monograph on a central phenomenon of ancient history, the Greek city state, and to prepare for the writing of the second, analytical half across the following two academic years. The Greek city-state determined much of Greek culture, in its social practices, economic performance, and cultural identity and production. It also offers a striking example of a robust, enduring form of social organization, predicated on social justice and redistribution, but also exclusion and conflict: it is of lasting interest to political philosophy and political science. The polis is a central issues in almost all periods of ancient history: this is the starting point of this research project, in treating questions across time and using insights from different periods to illuminate the whole topic. The monograph aims to provide joined-up thinking across a millenium and a half -, with research-grade (rather than textbook-like) details to advance our understanding, and engagement with broader theoretical and philosophical issues.

Marchand, Professor Trevor
Professor of Social Anthropology                                                                                                                      
Department of Anthropology, School of Oriental & African Studies 
Anthropology / Social & Cultural Anthropology, other branches 
Brain, Hand, Tool: an anthropological study of carpentry handskill and tool use
£108,146

The relation between brain, hand and tool is at once evolutionary, physical, neurological, psychological, cultural and social in nature. This multifaceted relation holds the key to what makes us human. Anthropology's involvement in exploring the everyday manifestations of this remarkable union is essential to the growth and development of the discipline's expertise in the related fields of craft, skill, technology, work and sport, and to its ongoing contributions to the fields of medicine and cognitive-neurosciences. The field study of skill learning and practice among UK woodworking trainees will employ a combination of participant observation, interviews, digital video and sound recording technology, 
and video analysis software to produce a unique data base for carefully analysing grasp, posture, gesture and tool-wielding movement at the workbench and in the carpentry shop. The ultimate aims of the research are to thoroughly investigate and better define the term 'embodied knowledge', and to expand popular understandings of 'intelligence' to include the intelligent hand at work.

Mark, Dr James
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
Department of History, University of Exeter
History / Modern History 
Transnationalism and the Communist Bloc 1958-1980
£89,079

The project pioneers a new approach to the study of the eastern European state socialism, which has, since 1989, predominantly been constructed within national frameworks. Drawing on an upsurge in transnational history elsewhere, the research will explore how late socialist regimes dealt with a 'world opening up', in which the geopolitics of decolonisation, 'peaceful co-existence', western protest movements, and a partial rupture of the Iron Curtain exposed socialist societies to new transnational currents. A monograph examines how new transnational ideologies were used by the Hungarian socialist state between 1958-1977 to define the ideal activist-citizen, and how citizens in turn appropriated a new transnational political language for their own ends. An edited collection integrates Communist bloc activism, through 'histoire croisée', into a pan-European account of transnational activism (1950s-1970s). BBC radio programmes based on transnational activism, and the development of 'transnational teaching pack' for secondary school educators in Europe, will enhance the project's impact.

Marsh, Dr Christopher
Reader in Early Modern History
School of History and Anthropology, Queen's University Belfast
History / Early Modern History
Best-selling ballads and their influence in seventeenth-century England
£98,150

Ballads were the cheapest and most popular form of printed literature available in seventeenth-century England. Their texts were set to common tunes and illustrated with simple woodcut pictures, and their influence was therefore not only literary but musical and visual as well. Scholars are increasingly drawn to ballads, tempted by the wide range of their subject matter, but awareness of the multi-media nature of balladry is in its infancy (tunes and pictures have often been neglected). Nobody, furthermore, has so far attempted to identify the early modern period's best-selling ballads across all themes from courtship to politics. This is important because it is only by establishing a list of known 'hits' that we can begin to understand what really mattered to members of the public and the techniques used by ballad-publishers to satisfy (and manipulate) their audience. Dr Marsh is already compiling a 'top 100' using all available sources and will produce a book and other outputs featuring all aspects of these once famous but now little known songs.

McLoughlin, Dr Kate
Lecturer in Modern Literature 
Department of English and Humanities, Birkbeck, University of London 
English Language and Literature / Textual Studies - English Language and Literature 
Veterans: Soldiers Come Home in English Literature
£81,602

The research will trace the representation of the war veteran in English Literature from Wordsworth to the present. The veteran is a charged figure in national life. The treatment of returning soldiers - by their countries, their local communities, their families - expresses national, local and personal values, forcing confrontations and exposing ambiguous feelings (is the veteran insider or interloper; familiar or alien; hero, victim or scapegoat?). Dr McLoughlin will ask: what formal and thematic role does the veteran play in literary texts? How does that role mirror or shape his standing in society? What values and emotions are projected onto him? What is his status as a citizen, a community- and family-member, a war reporter? What is his reception as a home-comer and how does it reflect attitudes towards the war he fought in and in the society he returns to? What, if any, is the manner of his re-integration? The output will be a monograph, talks to academics and the general public and reports to government and charities, capitalising on public interest in the First World War centenary years.

Meierhenrich, Dr Jens
Senior Lecturer in International Relations
Department of International Relations, London School of Economics and Political Science
Politics / International Relations 
Toward an Anthropology of International Law: The Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court, 2003-2012
£121,662

This project is dedicated to understanding (in a Weberian sense) the 'social lives' of international courts and tribunals, and the effects thereof on political and judicial outcomes in the international system. It is an ethnography of international justice that synthesizes insights from anthropology, political science, and law. Through the lens of the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court, notably the evolution of its institutional structure as well as the attitudes and activities of its very sizable and diverse staff (some 300 members), Dr Meierhenrich wilI contribute new and unexpected insights about the inner workings of international justice. By taking seriously a particular sub-set of agents of international criminal law (i.e., prosecutorial staff), their norms and values and preferences, Dr Meierhenrich wilI provide a more subtle account than currently exists of the choices that prosecutors make -- and their impact on the effectiveness of international courts and tribunals. By so doing, he wilI contribute to a growing trend in the study of international organizations more generally.

Milnes, Dr Tim
Senior Lecturer in English Literature                                                                                                                    
English Literature, University of Edinburgh
English Language and Literature / Intellectual history - English Language and Literature 
Radical Empiricism: Intersubjectivity from Hume to Hazlitt
£64,040

This proposal is for a wide-ranging study of the notion of intersubjectivity in British literature and philosophy from the publication of David Hume's Treatise in 1740 to the appearance of the familar essays of Charles Lamb and William Hazlitt in the 1820s. Its argument is that the idea of intersubjectivity forms the fulcrum of new and radical forms of empiricism that emerge as alternatives to the 'correspondence' model of truth and meaning undermined by Hume. Of particular interest here is the way in which fundamental ideas like the self, truth, and meaning are conceived less in terms of introspection, correspondence, and reference, and more in terms of community, coherence, and communication--in other words, as modes of intersubjectivity. The study traces the influence of these emerging ideas upon romantic writers like Charles Lamb, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Hazlitt, and concludes by connecting the new empiricism to modern pragmatics, speech-act theory and pragmatic philosophy.

Nowakowska, Dr Natalia
Tutorial Fellow in History
Somerville College, University of Oxford
History / Early Modern History 
Elusive Heresy: Poland, Luther and the Early Reformation (1517-c.1535)
£101,718

Dr Nowakowska will complete the first monograph on the early Reformation in Poland since 1911. The book will establish that, contrary to what is currently claimed in English- and Polish-language textbooks, the Polish Crown lands under King Zygmunt I witnessed significant Lutheran activity at many social levels. This finding has potentially major implications for our received narratives and geographies of the early Reformation. The monograph will explore why King Zygmunt and his bishops took such limited action against heresy, and propose a new reading of the early Reformation - as a period when the Latin church's identity had become so fragmented, that it was difficult for ruling elites to defend 
religious orthodoxy because it was no longer clear where it lay. The research will be disseminated at seminars and international conferences. It will be communicated to the public via a programme of public lectures, and via a blogsite which will provide a live log of the writing of the book, building on the success of Dr Nowakowska's Somerville Historian blog.

Pakkanen, Dr Jari
Senior Lecturer in Classical Archaeology                                                                                                            
Department of Classics and Philosophy, Royal Holloway, University of London
Archaeology / Archaeological Science & Environmental Archaeology 
Quantum models in archaeology and palaeoclimatology
£102,781

Several different types of archaeological and climate data sets have underlying patterns which are difficult to detect. In archaeology these patterns are the result of human agency behind the design and manufacture of the objects. In palaeoclimatological data the repeated patterns are introduced by orbital and solar factors, but this study demonstrates that a similar method can be used to tease out the statistically significant patterns in both manmade objects and environmental data. The project will use quantum modelling and computer simulations to make substantial new contributions to the knowledge of cyclical patterns in climate proxy data, Bronze Age weight metrology, and ancient architectural design. The complexity of analysing the archaeological data gives insight into studying the very noisy climate data and this is why the two groups should be studied in conjunction. Promotion of public engagement and understanding of the role statistical analysis in archaeology and climate research will be carried out by a dedicated website and a series of public lectures.

Perrett, Dr Robert
Senior Lecturer in Human Resource Management
School of Management, University of Bradford
Business and Management Studies / Management Studies 
Mentoring as a strategy to promote gender proportionality within public sector unions
£90,036

In the past trade unions have been criticised for bargaining priorities that have reinforced gender inequality in the UK (Ellis, 1995). This situation has changed considerably over the last three decades brought about not simply as a result of economic restructuring due to the collapse of male dominated industries (Kirton et al, 2010: 15) but as a result of the changing internal composition of trade union structures, democratic processes and decision making bodies. Though improvements have been made trade unions have been criticised for the lack of fair representation of women in senior 
positions, throughout union structures and on decision making committees raising the question of whether they accurately reflect the views of their majority membership. Utilising a multi-method approach, this study seeks to identify how mentoring voluntary female workplace representatives could enable them to overcome the barriers to career development within the union, to enable them to progress to higher level, decision making committees and therefore improve the union's overall proportionality.

Rowland, Professor Antony
Chair in Modern Literature 
Department of English, University of Salford
English Language and Literature / Contemporary Literature (English) 
Poetry as Testimony
£70,226

To illustrate the variety of ways in which poetry can function as testimony, the book engages with a diverse range of twentieth-century authors, from canonical writers such as Primo Levi to relatively unknown poets such as John Jarmain. Important archival material has been uncovered and analysed in the course of the research: the Salamander Oasis archive at the Imperial War Museum includes 20,000 items from World War Two poets. The study focuses on key aspects of poetry as testimony which recur throughout the writing of the various authors, such as demands for the reader's attentiveness, and problems of witnessing.

Serratrice, Dr Ludovica
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester 
Linguistics / Language Acquisition 
The relationship between analogy and structural priming in children's language learning
£86,019

What do children bring to the language learning task, and how does input affect their language use? These are key questions for developmental psychologists, linguists and teachers alike. Finding answers will deepen our understanding of the relationship between children's domain-specific linguistic representations and the domain-general cognitive mechanisms that underlie their development. This project will address these questions by investigating the relationship between analogical reasoning in geometric puzzles, and structural priming in language use in five-year-olds. Analogy is a domain-general learning mechanism where knowledge about relations gained in one context can transfer to a new but related context. Structural priming refers to speakers' tendency to re-use the same syntactic construction to refer to events that share the same relational content; a form of domain-specific implicit learning whereby form-meaning mappings are strengthened over repeated use. This project will explicitly test the hypothesis that linguistic structural priming is a form of analogy.

Sugg Ryan, Dr Deborah
Senior Lecturer in Histories and Theories of Design                                                                                             
Department of Design, University College Falmouth
History of Art / History of art and design 
'Ideal' Homes: Design, Architecture and Suburban Modernity in England, 1908-2014
£43,028

This research explores the architecture, design and decoration of the 'ideal' home. It draws on and extends the research on the Ideal Home Show (IHS), which resulted in a doctorate (1995), a popular monograph (1997) and Design Museum exhibition 'Ideal Homes' (1993). The proposed programme extends the focus on 'ideal' homes to representations in novels, memoirs, advertisements, magazines and films as well as actual examples of suburban architecture and interiors. It will explore the aspirations and tastes of suburban communities for domestic architecture and design that is both modern and nostalgic in a period where homeownership became the norm. The research will be disseminated through a monograph for an academic publisher, together with a new revised version of Dr Sugg Ryan's out-of-print book, updated to include a discussion of the representation of the sustainable home in the IHS in the 2000s. It will also undertake knowledge exchange with the HIS's owners Media-10 to disseminate Dr Sugg Ryan's work to visitors (270,000 in 2010). In addition, a documentary film for BBC2 is currently pending decision.

Sweeney, Dr Fionnghuala
Lecturer in Comparative American Studies
American Studies, University of Liverpool
English Language and Literature / Cultural studies - English Language and Literature 
Afromodernist London: Performance, Image and the Black Press between the Wars
£81,874

'Afromodernist London' examines the British capital as a site of black, largely male, diasporan political and artistic activity between the wars. It explores the effects in London of the black press, black performance, and the black photographic image on contemporary debates around race, manhood, decolonisation, and the politics of contemporary art and literature. The focus is on the work of actor, singer and political activist, Paul Robeson, and on playwright, historian and activist, CLR James, as well as on the activities of the recently emerged black London press, specifically the ways in which black revolution and the black revolutionary were represented. The project considers the ways in which London was linked into wider black artistic and political networks operating around the Atlantic in the period. It will result in the production of a monograph and one counterpoint article on black feminist networks. It will be the wider subject of an upcoming conference in Liverpool, and explore the possibility of staging a photographic exhibition of Robeson images from the period.

Taylor, Dr Mark
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
School of Law, University of Sheffield
Law / Medical Law 
Establishing the Public Interest in Research Access to Confidential Health Records.
£85,076

The governance of research access to information in health records is changing in the UK. These changes may lead to increased use of health records to support medical research and change the relationship between NHS patients, health professionals and medical records. Claims to the public interest in privacy and the public interest in medical research need to be reconcilable through a comprehensive concept of the public interest. This research programme will identify the concept of 'the public interest' most readily defensible in law, expert judgment, public reason and legal theory, it will test that concept for public acceptability, and then use that concept to determine the public interest in research access to health records.

Temple, Professor Jonathan
Professor of Economics                                                                                                                                   
Department of Economics, University of Bristol
Economics / Overseas Economics 
Foreign Aid
£57,486

Professor Temple will write a book on foreign aid which synthesizes the academic literature and the discussion of aid by donors, think tanks and NGOs. This project would build on an existing survey of the foreign aid literature, which he published in 2010; that survey is 40,000 words long. Turning this survey into a longer book would make its findings more accessible to a wider audience, and the book would be written in a slightly less academic way than the survey. It would not be pitched at the general public, but would look beyond academia, to a readership in organizations such as development ministries and NGOs with an interest in these issues and at least a little familiarity with them. Much of it would not assume extensive prior knowledge of economics beyond basic concepts like GDP and investment, and the more technical material would be discussed in appendices. The book would be written in such a way that it could be used as a supplementary reference in areas such as development studies, international relations and politics.

Thierry, Professor Guillaume
Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience                                                                                                                 
School of Psychology, Bangor University
Psychology / Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology 
Translanguaging: The quest for the bilingual learning advantage
£117,418

Bilingualism today is the norm, not the exception. Throughout the world, millions of individuals speak more than one language on a daily basis and many are being educated bilingually. This poses fascinating challenges for teachers and parents working towards language acquisition and conceptual development. One key issue is that of language separation: Whilst some schools hold classes strictly in one language, others have been experimenting with the use of two languages in the same class. The latter method is known as translanguaging: Pupils are presented with information in one language (written or spoken) and asked to produce outputs in their other language (written or spoken). Informal observations have shown that this method may be particularly effective because it prompts conceptual remapping of information across languages, potentially increasing understanding. This project will use cognitive neuroscience methods to understand the neural foundation of translanguaging in Welsh-English and Basque-Spanish adult bilinguals and evaluate its potential as a teaching strategy.

Toxvaerd, Dr Flavio
Lecturer in Economics
Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge
Economics / Applied Economics 
The Economics of Infectious Disease
£94,360

The proposed research seeks to make a number of fundamental contributions to the economics of infectious disease. This is an important and growing field of research which makes use of methods from economics to analyse the propagation and control of infectious diseases and epidemics. Specifically, the research seeks to address three central overarching questions as follows: 1. What is the optimal combination of instruments in controlling infectious diseases? 2. To what extent can optimal policies for disease control and prevention be decentralised? 3. When do socially optimal outcomes differ from those that would obtain under equilibrium with decentralised decision making? To carry out the research, Dr Toxvaerd will make extensive use of mathematical tools for dynamic optimisation (optimal control theory and dynamic programming) as well as game theory. He will make use of computer simulations in order to complement the formal analysis. In order to communicate the results of his research, he will engage in publishing, seminars and conferences, aimed both at academics and at policy makers.

Treveri Gennari, Dr Daniela
Programme Lead for Film Studies and Principal Lecturer in Film Studies
Film Studies, Oxford Brookes University
Communications and Media Studies / Film and Media Studies 
In Search of Cinema Audiences in 1940s and 1950s Italy: an oral history project in Rome
£77,838

This project addresses the gap in knowledge about the Italian cinema-going public of the 1940s and 1950s, for whom cinema was by far the most popular pastime. By engaging with cinema-going memories, this project will re-evaluate the popular reception of film combining an ethnographic audience study with analysis of the films that produced audiences' dominant memories, as well as reconstructing the film exhibition structure of the time. Rome will be used as a case study and this project will provide the first detailed and wide-ranging analysis of cinema audiences in the capital in the 1940s and 1950s. Through the triangulation of box office figures, the popular press and audience interviews, this project will provide a new view of cinema-going in the post-war period: one that focuses on the everyday nature of the experience. The historical audience study stems from an initial work conducted on 20 interviews with Romans, where oral history methodologies will be applied to a wider sample in order to map lived cinema experiences against the official history of Italian cinema.

Walton, Dr Benjamin Toby
Senior Lecturer                                                                                                                                                  
Jesus College, University of Cambridge
Music / History & Criticism of Music: Romantic 
Global Opera
£73,986

The proposed research takes the first operatic circumnavigation of the globe, by a small troupe of Italian singers during the 1820s and '30s, as a way to explore four related issues. First, the research will investigate the dynamics driving the spread of opera beyond Europe during the first half of the 19th century. Second, Dr Walton is interested in elucidating the very different social, political and musical contexts for these early (sometimes first) operatic performances in locations as different as Rio de Janeiro and Macau, Montevideo and Calcutta. Third, Dr Walton  plans to explore the intersections between this sort of tour and the development in the same period of a wider European discourse outlining the idea (or fantasy) of 'global opera'. Fourth, and related to the latter, he will reflect on how the study of this sort of long-forgotten tour, by obscure singers, might change the way that we write about 19th-century operatic history within Europe, given its traditional emphasis on composers and an extremely limited number of theatrical centres.

Whitmarsh, Professor Tim
Professor of Ancient Literatures                                                                                                                         
Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford
Classics and Ancient History / History of Greece and the Greek World 
Battling the gods: religious scepticism in ancient Greece and Rome
£114,095

This project will provide a transformative intellectual history of religious scepticism in Greco-Roman antiquity, from the classical period of Greece down to the time of the conversion of Constantine. During the Enlightenment, Greek and Roman thought was treated as a secular genealogy of western culture, to compete with the religious tradition rooted in the Bible. Since the early twentieth century, however, classical scholarship (outside of the Soviet bloc) has taken a heavy 'religious turn', emphasising the all-pervasiveness of the polytheistic worldview, to the extent that many critics now even deny the existence of anything like atheism in Greece and Rome. This project by contrast offers a new perspective on antiquity's rich array of religious deniers, seeking to understand them on their own terms. At the same time, however, ancient, 'polytheistic atheism' will be distinguished from its modern, monotheistic successors as more pluriform and less prone to absolutism. The outputs will be a conference, a monograph and a series of video interviews.

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